Periodontal Disease & Cardiovascular Disease- The Mouth to Heart Connection: An Overview

  • Jaideep Mahendra Professor, Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India.
  • Sruthi Srinivasan Post-Graduate Student, Department of Periodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital Chennai, India.
  • Little Mahendra Dean and Head of Research, Maktoum Bin Hamdan Dental University College, Dubai.
  • Vivek Sharma Professor and Head Department of Periodontics, Desh Bhagat Dental College and Hospital, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab, India.
  • Sunny Sharma Registrar, Department of Prosthodontics and Crown & Bridge, Indira Gandhi Govt. Dental College & Hospital, Amphalla, Jammu, J & K UT, India.
Keywords: Periodontitis, Cardiovascular Disease, Inflammation, Pathophysiology, Biomarkers, Periodontal Microbes, Endothelial Injury.


The concept of periodontal medicine has been debated for years since its introduction. Research in the past has made it clear that there exists a strong positive correlation between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. The microbes of periodontal disease have been seen to colonize the cardiac tissues and create inflammation. The host’s inflammatory response to the bacteria insult also causes damage to the cardiovascular system especially the chemical mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Thus, this literature review aims at highlighting the pathophysiology of cardiac disease and the role of periodontitis in the etiology. It also aims at highlighting the various novel biomarkers that can be used for the early detection and diagnosis of both inflammatory conditions.