International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2021-07-30T08:36:25-04:00 Yogesh Kumar Open Journal Systems <p><strong>International Journal of Drug Research And Dental Science&nbsp;</strong>is an official peer-reviewed journal published Quarterly, with a total of 4 issues a year. The journal aims to publish high-quality articles in the field of Drug Research and Dental science. Original articles, review articles, short communications, and letters to the editor in Drug and Dental are accepted. All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the International Journal of Drug Research and Dental science (IJDRD). All papers are subjected to double-blinded peer-review.&nbsp;</p> “Comparative Evaluation of Clinical Changes and Microbial Flora Associated with Usage of Mouth Washes Containing Green Tea, Chlorhexidine (0.2%) and Essential Oils in Patients Undergoing Orthodontic Therapy” 2021-05-11T22:15:37-04:00 Krishna Priya. B Anil Melath Anjali K Mohammed Feroz T. P Subair. K Nanditha Chandran <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Periodontal disease results from a complex interplay between the subgingival biofilm and the host immune-inflammatory events that develop in the gingival and periodontal tissues in response to the challenge presented by the bacteria 1 an increasing number of people all over the world are turning to nature by using natural herbal products in both prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. Plants are the source of more than 25% of prescription and over-the-counter preparations and the potential of natural agents for oral prophylaxis should therefore be considered.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate the clinical changes before and after the use of Green tea, Chlorhexidine (0.2%), and Essential oil mouthwashes in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the three mouthwashes in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy. To compare the clinical changes and antimicrobial properties of the three mouthwashes in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Sixty patients of age group 13-35 yrs with minimal crowding were selected for this study. Subjects with minimal crowding were selected based on the Little’s Irregularity Index score range up to 3. The gingival health status and presence of bleeding on probing were assessed by Gingival index by Loe and Silness (1963) and Papillary bleeding index (PBI) by Muhleman and Saxer (1975) 64 after 2 weeks of placement of orthodontic brackets. Plaque samples were collected and sent for microbiological analysis to estimate colony-forming units. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of the following groups. Each group consisted of 20 subjects.</p> <p><strong>Group I:</strong> Green tea mouth wash (10ml to be rinsed for 30 seconds twice daily).</p> <p><strong>Group II:</strong> Chlorhexidine mouth wash (0.2%) (10ml to be rinsed for 30 seconds twice daily).</p> <p><strong>Group III:</strong> Essential oil mouth wash (10ml to be rinsed for 30 seconds twice daily).</p> <p>After the 14<sup>th</sup> day and 21<sup>st</sup> day, the subjects were recalled and the gingival and bleeding indices were recorded. Supragingival plaque sample was collected using a sterile jaquette scaler for microbiological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When the gingival index was compared on the baseline, 14<sup>th</sup>, and 21<sup>st</sup> day between the three groups, it was observed that the chlorhexidine group showed a decrease in the gingival index followed by green tea mouthwash and essential oil mouthwash. When the papillary bleeding index was compared between the three groups on baseline, 14<sup>th</sup> day and 21<sup>st</sup> day it was observed that chlorhexidine shows the least papillary bleeding index followed by green tea mouth wash and essential oil mouthwash. A comparison of the total CFU of various mouthwashes in this study revealed that 0.2% CHX mouthwash was the most effective in reducing the total microbial colony count (33.96% reduction in total bacterial colony count from baseline to 14th day and 51.42% reduction in total bacterial colony count from 14<sup>th</sup> day to 21<sup>st</sup> day), followed by green tea mouth wash (15.8% reduction in total bacterial colony count from baseline to 14<sup>th</sup> day and 27.37% reduction in total bacterial colony count from 14<sup>th</sup> day to 21<sup>st</sup> day) and essential oil mouth wash (wash (6.39% reduction in total bacterial colony count from baseline to 14th day and 2.6% reduction in total bacterial colony count from 14<sup>th</sup> day to 21<sup>st</sup> day).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that all three mouthwashes in this study are equally effective by showing significant clinical and microbiological changes after the usage in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy. Chlorhexidine mouthwashes showed better clinical and microbiological changes after the usage followed by green tea mouthwashes and essential oil mouthwashes. Green tea mouthwash can be recommended as a safe anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial mouthwash to control gingival inflammation and to maintain good oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment.</p> 2021-05-09T06:08:24-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Management of Gagging and Anxiety in Children by Play Way Method 2021-05-16T02:50:43-04:00 Parimala Kulkarni Barkha Chhattani Nikita Agrawal Shikha Mali Saurabh Kale Nidhi Singh Thakur <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The gag reflex (GR) is an innate healthy defense mechanism that helps prevent foreign bodies from entering the trachea. Psychological, anatomic, iatrogenic, local, and systemic factors influence the GR. The pharyngeal reflex that prevents choking involves five triggering zones in the oral cavity: the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds, the post-pharyngeal wall, the uvula, the palate, and the base of the tongue. So, this study is undertaken to determine gag reflux using the Intellectual Colored game distraction technique during the dental impression.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study is to determine the effect of distraction using the intellectual colored game (ICG) on the severity of GR and anxiety in children during the dental impression.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 50 children aged between 5 to 11 years, needing upper alginate impressions will be selected for the study and will be divided into 2 groups of 25 each. Children’s baseline anxiety will be evaluated according to the Buchanan’s Facial Image Scale (FIS) before any impression attempt. In Group 1 the upper alginate impression will be taken without playing ICG and group 2 upper alginate impressions will be taken while playing ICG.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Statistical analysis showed that 28% and 76% of children from the control and treatment groups respectively had a higher level of anxiety before the use of the distraction technique. However, 12% and 4% of children had higher anxiety after the use of distraction technique and a statistically significant change in anxiety in the treatment group with existing anxiety level (Z = -3.412, p = 0.001) was observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intellectual distraction is a safe, successful &amp; cost-effective method for gag reflux management in pediatric dentistry. The Intellectual coloured game diverted the child’s attention during the stressful alginate impression, henceforth it should be considered to further advance behaviour management techniques.</p> 2021-05-08T07:11:41-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Related to Management of Medical Emergencies in the Dental Office among Dental Practitioners in Chikkaballapur District, Karnataka 2021-05-11T22:15:36-04:00 Seemala Jyotsna R Murali Shamala A Mansi Yalamalli Aparna Ramachandran Evan Cliff Rebello <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> A medical emergency is a sudden and unexpected onset of illness or injury that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a patient’s life. Such emergencies are likely to occur within the confines of the dental office. Dental practitioners should possess the knowledge to identify and manage a potentially life‑threatening situation. Hence the present study was conducted to assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice related to the Management of Medical Emergencies in the Dental Office among Dental Practitioners in Chikkaballapur district, Karnataka.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A pretested questionnaire was created on Google forms and the link to the questionnaire was sent to the dental practitioners in the Chikkaballapur district. Reminders were sent to the subjects at regular intervals to fill the questionnaire and a total of 251 responded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 251 participating dentists 55.8 % of respondents were trained in the BLS program and 46.2% were trained in the intravenous administration of drugs. 61% of the respondents were confident in handling a medical emergency in the dental office. 92.8% of the respondents felt that basic life support programs should be a part of continuing dental education.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed that basic knowledge regarding the management of medical emergencies and dealing with the same was satisfactory among the study subjects. Also, there is a need to emphasize more training in medical emergencies through workshops and continuing dental education.</p> 2021-05-09T03:30:51-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Knowledge and Attitude Towards Choosing Public Health Dentistry as a Choice for Post Graduation among Interns of Dental Colleges in Bangalore City 2021-05-11T22:15:37-04:00 Evan Cliff Rebello Shamala. A R. Murali Mansi Yalamalli Seemala Jyotsna Aparna Ramachandran <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>In India, before 1980, there were only 39 dental colleges with few dentists being available for services, This scenario changed completely after 1980, with an intense increase in the number of dental colleges, which reached around 240 in 2007. Public Health Dentistry is considered as a non-clinical department, though it is a clinical specialty offering preventive and comprehensive treatment to the masses, and is given less priority by the students as their choice in post-graduation. Hence, the present study was carried out with an aim to explore the Knowledge and attitude towards choosing Public Health Dentistry as a choice for post-graduation among interns of Dental Colleges in Bangalore city.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A pretested closed-ended questionnaire was created on Google forms and forwarded to the interns of various Dental Colleges in Bangalore via email. The first section of the questionnaire consisted of demographic details of the study participant such as name, age, and gender. The second section consisted of questions to evaluate their knowledge and attitude towards Public Health Dentistry. The questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of two months from September to October 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>402 out of the total 755 dental interns responded to the questionnaire. Only 2% of respondents took a liking/interest in the subject of Public Health Dentistry during their under graduation, and also were keen to pursue a post-graduate degree in the same. The findings of this study suggest that though a vast majority of interns were aware of the importance and scope of Public Health Dentistry, only a meagre number of interns wanted to pursue post-graduation in the subject.</p> 2021-05-11T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Dental Age Assessment Using Demirjian’s Method in Patients Visiting A Dental School in Uttrakhand 2021-06-30T02:49:43-04:00 Shally Raina Karnika Yadav Upender Malik Abhishek Kumar <p><strong>Background:</strong> Age estimation forms one of the most important sub-disciplines of forensic sciences and is of paramount importance in medico-legal issues.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The study comprised 200 subjects aged 14 to 24 years. By purposive sampling method the study subjects were divided into 10 groups starting from 14 years to 24 years with a class interval of 1 year ( e.g. Group I:- 14.01- 14.99 years, Group II:- 15.01- 15.99 years…… Group X: - 23.01- 23.99 years). Each age group consisted of 20 subjects with equal distribution of 10 subjects in both genders. Chaillet and Demirjian’s method with Acharya’s formula was used to compare the chronological and the estimated dental age.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed a significant p-value (p&lt; 0.005) in all the age groups in both the genders except for group v (18.01-18.99) in males and group III (16.01-16.99) and group V (18.01-18.99) in females. Also, the difference in the estimated dental age varied between + 4.18 years and – 2.02 years for males and +4.08 years and – 0.20 years in females. The results depicted an overall underestimation of the dental age by 0.60 years in males and 1.26 years in females.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> we concluded that Chaillet and Demirjian’s radiographic method with Acharya’s formula can be a reliable method in the assessment of dental age in the mentioned study group consisting of the Uttarakhand population.</p> 2021-06-30T02:49:43-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science An Algorithm for Clinical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea 2021-05-11T22:15:38-04:00 Mohsin Shaikh Mohit Kheur Tabrez Lakha Khatija Memon Sana Kazi <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Different approaches for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been reported over the years. This review summarizes an overview of the current literature available on the treatment of OSA and proposes an algorithm or clinical workflow for the management of the same.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Peer-reviewed publications were searched on PubMed and MEDLINE. Articles published in the English language were considered for the review. The keywords used were Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, Oral Appliances, Mandibular repositioning appliance, and Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Behaviour management, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), oral devices, and other interventions have been reported to control Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Clinicians should make a treatment plan depending on the clinical diagnosis and the severity of the symptoms of the patient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Apnoea/Hypopnea index (AHI) should be used by the clinicians for assessing the severity of the disorder prior to treatment. As per the current literature, it was observed that patients have a higher compliance rate with oral appliance therapy as compared to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.</p> 2021-05-10T15:33:24-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Periodontal Disease & Cardiovascular Disease- The Mouth to Heart Connection: An Overview 2021-06-06T04:52:48-04:00 Jaideep Mahendra Sruthi Srinivasan Little Mahendra Vivek Sharma Sunny Sharma <p>The concept of periodontal medicine has been debated for years since its introduction. Research in the past has made it clear that there exists a strong positive correlation between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. The microbes of periodontal disease have been seen to colonize the cardiac tissues and create inflammation. The host’s inflammatory response to the bacteria insult also causes damage to the cardiovascular system especially the chemical mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Thus, this literature review aims at highlighting the pathophysiology of cardiac disease and the role of periodontitis in the etiology. It also aims at highlighting the various novel biomarkers that can be used for the early detection and diagnosis of both inflammatory conditions.</p> 2021-06-06T04:23:37-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Low-Cost Antiseptics in Periodontal Therapy- A Review Article 2021-07-02T03:37:36-04:00 Anumala Deepa Sunny Sharma <p>Periodontitis is a major health problem in low-income populations. Low-income individuals in developing countries tend to demonstrate a high level of risk factors for periodontal disease and are at increased risk of developing severe periodontitis and even potentially fatal oral infections such as noma (cancrum oris). Successful periodontal healthcare of low-income populations must be based upon affordable professional therapy and self-care techniques with proven efficacy and safety. Antiseptics are broad-spectrum microbicidal agents that are applied topically onto living tissue to prevent or treat clinical infections caused by bacteria and viruses.<sup>1</sup> The high degree of safety allows frequent and broad use of antiseptics in periodontal treatment. Antiseptics when used together with subgingival scaling are more effective than scaling alone in reducing periodontal pathogens and in improving clinical attachment and alveolar bone mass.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Prophylaxis for Invasive Fungal Infection…Need of the Hour 2021-07-03T08:40:22-04:00 Varushi Saraswat Shishir Mohan Devki Pramod Yadav <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To evaluate the existing studies on Anti-fungal prophylaxis and how it may help in controlling the post-Covid pandemic of Invasive Fungal Infection like mucormycosis.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Method:</strong> Studies related to fungal infections and their treatment (prophylactic, empirical, surgical, adjunctive therapy); mainly prophylaxis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The need for anti-fungal prophylaxis is very important in high-risk patients. Studies done on anti-fungal prophylaxis have given satisfactory results. Due to prolonged stay in the hospital, &amp; use of steroids, weak immunity, patients are suffering from a post-covid pandemic of fungal infections like Mucormycosis and the use of anti-fungal prophylaxis should help in reducing infection and control the pandemic situation.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Role of Dental Professionals in Disaster Management: A Review 2021-07-30T08:36:25-04:00 Pankaj Kumar Chaudhary Basavaraj Patthi Ashish Singla Ravneet Kaur Malhi Ambar Khan Divyangi Goel <p>Disasters are not confined to a particular part of the world; they can occur anywhere and at any time. Emergencies and disasters not only affect the health and well-being of people; frequently, a large number of people are dead, injured, or subjected to greater risk of epidemics. The fundamental aspects of Disaster Management include Disaster Response, Disaster preparedness, and disaster mitigation. Dentists are one of the important constituents of the health team, yet their role or utility has not been emphasized till date. The various activities carried out by Dentists for the purpose of Disaster Management include providing support to First responders, Disease surveillance, Forensic assistance, Triage duties, Definitive clinical treatments, Prescribing appropriate drugs, Vaccination programmes, Policymaking, etc. Forensic odontology also plays a major role in the identification of disaster victims with Dental Identification, DNA Identification, Palatoscopy, and Cheiloscopy. In the current scenario, Dental professionals have risen to the challenge in the fight against COVID -19 and have proved to be an invaluable resource in the pandemic response. Thus, in a developing country like India, where a disaster can fall at the strike of the clock, there is a need to harvest the services of the wide distribution of dental professionals practicing in the country.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Intra Oral Prosthetic Device as an Adjunct Therapy for Treatment of Erythema Multiforme: A Case Report 2021-05-11T22:15:38-04:00 Avinash B Sagvekar Rachana Sampathkumar Sampathkumar. N <p>Erythema Multiforme (EM) is an acute inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes that causes a variety of skin lesions—hence the name “multiforme.” The oral lesions, typically inflammatory, are accompanied by rapidly rupturing vesicles and bullae. EM has several clinical presentations: from milder self-limiting form to severe life-threatening form that may present as either Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN).<sup>1</sup> The most common triggers for episodes of EM are herpes simplex virus and drug reactions.<sup>2</sup> EM includes both generalized symptoms such as fever and malaise and oral lesions starting as bullae on an erythematous base which break rapidly into irregular ulcers.<sup>1</sup> Analysis of the dental literature indicated limited evidence about the use of dental removable prosthesis in oral lesions manifested by EM.<sup>3,4</sup> This case report describes a multi-disciplinary approach for the treatment of erythema multiforme with the use of the intra-oral dental prosthetic device.</p> 2021-05-08T07:21:29-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Fortuitously Discovered: Compound odontoma- A Case Study 2021-06-06T04:36:34-04:00 Aiman Mahfooz Roopika Handa Monika Singh Arpan Manna M.K. Sunil <p>Many Development anomalies of the maxilla and mandible diagnosed incidentally on radiographs usually are asymptomatic, however the basis for evaluation being delayed eruption of teeth or impaction of permanent teeth. Odontomas are odontogenic benign tumors composed of dental tissue and usually thought of as “tooth hamartomas” with the lesion consisting of various tooth components. This paper describes the case report of a 12-year-old girl with an impacted central incisor and on the basis of clinical and radiological examination diagnosis of an odontoma is made.</p> 2021-06-06T04:36:34-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Elongated Styloid Process- An Unusual Finding- A Case Study 2021-06-30T02:33:56-04:00 Chhavi Srivastava Upender Malik Tabiha Khan Priya Singh Surangama Lehri <p>Styloid process is approximately 2.5 cm to 3cm in length and its tip is located lateral to tonsillar fossa between external and internal carotid arteries. Elongation of Styloid process or calcification of stylohyoid ligament leads to Eagle syndrome which causes excruciating throat pain, facial pain, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation. It may be present unilaterally or bilaterally with an overall prevalence of 4% in adults out of which 0.16% are symptomatic with symptoms.</p> 2021-06-28T04:05:23-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Interdental Papilla Reconstruction using Modified Nordland’s Microsurgical Technique: A Case Study 2021-06-28T07:05:06-04:00 Anand Induchoodan Remya RM Babu Salam C <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Interdental papillary loss due to trauma or as sequelae of inflammatory periodontal disease creates an unaesthetic appearance and it is also a challenge to treat. Management of these cases by conventional techniques is unpredictable owing to the availability of limited working spaces and also the delicate vascular supply of the interdental region.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation:</strong> In this case study, we describe a modified version of Nordland’s technique using ophthalmic blades for the reconstruction of lost interdental papilla. The avoidance of placing a releasing incision preserves the vascular channels and may not cause unaesthetic scarring. The augmented papillary site was stable after 2 years of follow-up.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Nordland’s microsurgical technique offers a predictable method of papilla augmentation. The present technique relies on the placement of microsurgical dissection, atraumatic handling of the split-thickness flap, and the precise tailoring of suspensory sutures.</p> 2021-06-28T07:05:06-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Corona (Covid19) Virus: A Global Threat and Dentistry Managements- A Mini-Review 2021-05-16T02:46:22-04:00 Sameen RJ Bindushree V Sunitha C Vijeev Vasudevan <p>Pneumonia kind of infection caused by coronavirus usually β-type has recently been found in the Wuhan city of China. Strains of this corona are found in bats of genome identity of 96.2% of Bat CoV RaTG13 (Bat type coronavirus). persons affected show symptoms like fever, cough, and sneeze that is likely to spread infections such as droplet inhalant transmission and contact transmissions. A dentist who is in clinical practise is more prone to exposure to face-to-face transmission and through saliva, blood, instruments used by patients, and body fluids. Dentists and patients can expose to infectious microorganisms like both bacteria and viruses especially corona virus-infected patients during dental procedures such as a contaminated instrument or through direct transmissions at dental clinics and hospitals during an outbreak of COVID19. All dental professionals should be aware of how to identify the infected patients and protective measures to be followed in clinics and hospitals to prevent the spread of this disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2) is the key receptor used by this virus for spreading especially in oral cavity salivary ducts contain more of this enzyme so in dentistry, saliva is more prone to be exposed by a dentist through droplets or aerosols in which person to person transmissions or through contaminated instruments. Dental professionals play a pre-vital role in the prevention of spreading of the disease and a knowledge guide of precautionary measures that should be mandatory during dental procedures are briefly explained in this article.</p> 2021-05-16T02:45:48-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science