Unveiling the Hidden Impact of Oral Diseases on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

  • Devadharshini Chandrasekar Postgraduate Student, Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Maduravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Jaideep Mahendra Professor & Director of Post Graduate Studies, Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Maduravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Muskan Bedi Undergraduate Student, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Porur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Ambalavanan N Professor and Head, Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Maduravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Keywords: Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes, Dental Caries, Inflammation, Maternal Health, Oral Diseases, Prenatal Care, Periodontitis


As oral health's systemic implications gain recognition, various research has been done to identify significant associations between oral diseases and pregnancy complications. It has been stated that the oral bacteria may increase the systemic inflammatory markers which may adversely impact pregnancy outcomes, encompassing preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational complications. It explores potential biological mechanisms, emphasizing the role of inflammation, infection, and systemic immune responses in shaping pregnancy. This comprehensive review emphasises the significance of recognizing and addressing oral diseases in the context of maternal health. By shedding light on the hidden impact of oral diseases on adverse pregnancy consequences, this article contributes valuable insights to the broader discourse on women's health and prenatal care.


Sanz M, Kornman K, Working Group 3 of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop. Periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. Journal of Periodontology. 2013 Apr;84:S164-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2013.1340016

Chapple IL, Genco R, Working Group 2 of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop*. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. Journal of Periodontology. 2013 Apr;84:S106-12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2013.1340011

Poon LC, McIntyre HD, Hyett JA, da Fonseca EB, Hod M. The first-trimester of pregnancy–A window of opportunity for prediction and prevention of pregnancy complications and future life. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2018 Nov 1;145:20-30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.05.002

Teshome A, Yitayeh A. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review. Pan African Medical Journal. 2016 Sep 20;24(1). doi: https://doi.org/10.11604%2Fpamj.2016.24.215.8727

Komine‐Aizawa S, Aizawa S, Hayakawa S. Periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2019 Jan;45(1):5-12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.13782

Han YW, Ikegami A, Bissada NF, Herbst M, Redline RW, Ashmead GG. Transmission of an uncultivated Bergeyella strain from the oral cavity to amniotic fluid in a case of preterm birth. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2006 Apr;44(4):1475-83. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.44.4.1475-1483.2006

Pihlstrom BL, Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. The lancet. 2005 Nov 19;366(9499):1809-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67728-8

Offenbacher S, Katz V, Fertik G, Collins J, Boyd D, Maynor G, McKaig R, Beck J. Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. Journal of Periodontology. 1996 Oct;67:1103-13. doi: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.1996.67.10s.1103

Stadelmann P, Alessandri R, Eick S, Salvi GE, Surbek D, Sculean A. The potential association between gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory mediators and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review. Clinical oral investigations. 2013 Jul; 17:1453-63. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-013-0952-0

Moore S, Ide M, Randhawa M, Walker JJ, Reid JG, Simpson NA. An investigation into the association among preterm birth, cytokine gene polymorphisms and periodontal disease. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2004 Feb;111(2):125-32. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.00024.x-i1

Jeffcoat M, Parry S, Sammel M, Clothier B, Catlin A, Macones G. Periodontal infection and preterm birth: successful periodontal therapy reduces the risk of preterm birth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2011 Jan; 118(2):250-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02713.x

Wei BJ, Chen YJ, Yu L, Wu B. Periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 12;8(8):e70901. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070901

Gare J, Kanoute A, Meda N, Viennot S, Bourgeois D, Carrouel F. Periodontal conditions and pathogens associated with pre-eclampsia: a scoping review. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021 Jul 5;18(13):7194. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137194

Saadaoui M, Singh P, Al Khodor S. Oral microbiome and pregnancy: A bidirectional relationship. Journal of reproductive immunology. 2021 Jun 1;145:103293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2021.103293

Popova C, Dosseva-Panova V, Panov V. Microbiology of periodontal diseases. A review. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2013 Jan 1;27(3):3754-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.5504/BBEQ.2013.0027

Beckers KF, Sones JL. Maternal microbiome and the hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, preeclampsia. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2020 Jan 1;318(1):H1-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00469.2019

Vanterpool SF, Been JV, Houben ML, Nikkels PG, De Krijger RR, Zimmermann LJ, Kramer BW, Progulske-Fox A, Reyes L. Porphyromonas gingivalis within placental villous mesenchyme and umbilical cord stroma is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 5;11(1):e0146157. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146157

Golic M, Haase N, Herse F, Wehner A, Vercruysse L, Pijnenborg R, Balogh A, Saether PC, Dissen E, Luft FC, Przybyl L. Natural killer cell reduction and uteroplacental vasculopathy. Hypertension. 2016 Oct;68(4):964-73.doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07800

World Health Organization. The incidence of low birth weight: an update. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1984; 59:205–11.

Yeo BK, Lim LP, Paquette DW, Williams RC. Periodontal disease—the emergence of a risk for systemic conditions: pre-term low birth weight. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005 Jan 1; 34(1):111-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15726229/

Hill GB. Preterm birth: associations with genital and possibly oral microflora. Annals of Periodontology. 1998 Jul;3(1):222-32. https://doi.org/10.1902/annals.1998.3.1.222

López NJ, Smith PC, Gutierrez J. Periodontal therapy may reduce the risk of preterm low birth weight in women with peridotal disease: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of periodontology. 2002 Aug;73(8):911-24.doi: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2002.73.8.911

Buduneli N, Baylas H, Buduneli E, Türkoğlu O, Köse T, Dahlen G. Periodontal infections and pre‐term low birth weight: A case‐control study. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2005 Feb;32(2):174-81. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00670.x

How to Cite
Chandrasekar, D., Mahendra, J., Bedi, M., & N, A. (2023). Unveiling the Hidden Impact of Oral Diseases on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science, 5(4), 6-11. https://doi.org/10.36437/ijdrd.2023.5.4.B