International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science <p><strong>International Journal of Drug Research And Dental Science&nbsp;</strong>is an official peer-reviewed journal published Quarterly, with a total of 4 issues a year. The journal aims to publish high-quality articles in the field of Drug Research and Dental science. Original articles, review articles, short communications, and letters to the editor in Drug and Dental are accepted. All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the International Journal of Drug Research and Dental science (IJDRD). All papers are subjected to double-blinded peer-review.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Yogesh Kumar) Sun, 17 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Indian Namaste Goes Global In COVID-19 Era <p>To the Editor-in-Chief</p> <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in China with a bunch of severe pneumonia cases, later identified to be caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in December 2019. Thailand reported the primary COVID-19 case outside of China on 13th January 2020, Africa reported its first case in Egypt on 14th February 2020 and Nigeria reported its patient of COVID-19 on 27th February 2020. Virtually, all countries within the world are affected.<sup>1</sup></p> Madhusudhan Kempaiah Siddaiah, Pallavi Madhusudhan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Mon, 04 Jan 2021 08:21:26 -0500 Barriers & Facilitators to Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy & Post-partum Period <p>Smoking tobacco during pregnancy is associated with a number of pregnancy complications and a range of poor foetal outcome. This review aims to assess barriers and facilitators to the use of nicotine replacement therapy in smoking cessation during pregnancy and the postpartum period. A number of barriers to achieving smoking cessation are emerged from three issue areas: pregnant women, health providers, and organizations. Pregnancy-specific barriers included lack of support, lack of knowledge and awareness about smoking harms, lack of planning, and understanding of the consequences of smoking during pregnancy. Health Providers (HPs) related barriers are lack of knowledge and awareness about nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescription, Credibility of HPs and at an organization level, weak policies and organizational frameworks are some of the barriers. Facilitators to NRT use in pregnancy are relationships with partners, family, friends, and HPs, knowledge, and awareness about NRT, an organizational framework like stop smoking-cessation services (SSSs), Carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring, community support for smoking cessation, and clear policies. Smoking-cessation treatment should consist of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the pregnant smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help pregnant smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence.</p> Sunil Kumar Vishwakarma, Manjunath P Puranik, Namita Shanbhag Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Thu, 14 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Importance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Biopsy in Head and Neck Surgical Oncology <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This particular study aimed to determine the importance of intraoperative frozen section pathology of head and neck cancers in order to examine the reliability of the frozen section. Frozen section biopsy technique often helps a rapid diagnosis of a mass during surgery, which in turn may help a surgeon to know the status of the margins of his resection before closing.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study was done to achieve tumour free surgical margin after resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study also examines to determine positive margins and their relation to tumour size, grade, and stage of oral squamous cell carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This cross-sectional study was done in 179 patients with oral sqamous cell carcinoma.</p> <p>Results: Overall, 179 patients who underwent surgery for oral cavity cancers were included; 116 (65.2%) were males. The mean (+standard deviation) age of the included participants was 57.4 + 16.1 years. The most common tumour subsite was the tongue (n ¼ 71, 39.2%). The frozen, negative intraoperative malignancy and the postoperative safe surgical margin did not significantly differ.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The intra-operative frozen section biopsy plays an important role in Achieve tumour free surgical margin in the resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, it was also noted that the number of positive margins increased in relation to increased tumour size and tumour stage (cTNM).</p> Rajat Bhende, Raj Nagarkar, Rajendra Dhondge, Ahmer Arif Shaikh, Priyadarshini Banerjee, Ruturaj Deshpande Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Sun, 17 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Temporomandibular Disorders- A Brief Review <p>Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a collective term that embraces a number of clinical conditions that involve the masticatory musculature and/or temporomandibular (TM) joints and associated structures. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are examined from a biopsychosocial or illness perspective. It is considered that TMD share features with many common chronic pain conditions. Functional disturbances of the masticatory system can be as complicated as the system itself. Although numerous treatments have been advocated, the complex nature of TMD requires a multidisciplinary team.</p> Tarun Vyas , Ravleen Nagi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Thu, 14 Jan 2021 11:38:10 -0500 Current Concept and Trend in Management of Patients Undergoing Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery During COVID-19 <p>The surgical pathology of the oro-maxillofacial district is highly specific and the maxillofacial surgeon can be exposed to pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses and bacteria that infect the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Maxillofacial care settings invariably carry the risk of 2019-nCoV infection due to the specificity of its procedures, which involves face-to-face communication with patients, This study attempts to provide a brief overview on the structure of the virus, it’s modes of transmission and clinical features of the same. The risk of infection during the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases. It has been an attempt to present a protocol to standardize facial pathology triage, precautions to minimizing the risk of transmission, protocols to provide optimum surgical care and simultaneously prevent nosocomial infection in operative settings.</p> Rajat Bhende, Rajesh Kshirsagar, Ruturaj Deshpande, Priyadarshini Banerjee, Arpita Amin, Prasamita Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Sun, 17 Jan 2021 09:21:55 -0500 Digital Impressions: Evolution or Revolution– A Review <p>Digital and manufacturing technology is evolving on a large scale and the use of these technologies in the field of dentistry has become a major trend for diagnosis. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology has drastically modified dentist’s method of treatment planning and restorative workflow. As the CAD/CAM market evolved, new scanners, designing software, mills, and printers are added. New materials are under development, and current software is still being modified. To overcome the shortcomings of the traditional impression system, digital impressions were familiarised. These systems are more efficient and effective. Sophisticated digital scanners and software programs are included in CAD / CAM to capture the amount of information and manipulate the collected data needed to fabricate custom milled restorations in dental practices.</p> Umesh Palekar, Deepak M. Vikhe, Agyey Kumar Pathak, Aparna Deo, Milind Jagdale, Alpa Newaskar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Tue, 26 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Steroids in oral surgery <p>Corticosteroids have become an indispensable component of oral surgical procedures for their known anti-inflammatory potential which has proved to be quite effective in reducing the associated post-operative complications. Due to potent anti-inflammatory action, steroids have transformed the management of various acute, chronic as well as debilitating conditions of the oral and maxillofacial region. Although, the steroids offer commendable results, there still have been certain restraints on their use as they can trigger various adverse-effects as well. The article will therefore focus on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of steroids and their role in the oral surgical procedures, thereby, highlighting on the contraindications and adverse effects of their prolonged and crude use.</p> Rhythm Hora, Mohit Rathore, Mohnish Muchhal, Tania Jandial, Monika Kumari, Ananthalekshmy Rajeev Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Sun, 14 Feb 2021 09:12:51 -0500 Dental Implants in Diabetic Patients: A Review <p>Dental implants have currently been recognized as an acceptable treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth, but diabetes mellitus is considered a relative contraindication for dental implant therapy. As periodontal disease is the sixth major complication of diabetes, these patients are at increased risk for teeth loss. Due to this, these patients may be denied the benefit of dental implants. Hence, the aim of this review is to report findings of various studies wherein implants were placed in diabetic individuals so as to improve the understanding of the possibilities and aid in decision making for implant therapy in patients with diabetes.</p> Didla Navya, Gandham Anvesh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Thu, 18 Feb 2021 08:11:27 -0500 “Disaster Victim Identification”: An Advanced Forensic Approach in Mass Fatalities: A Review Article <p>Nowadays disasters are common, may it be natural, accidental, or a result of terrorism, causing the loss of numerous lives. In such disasters, it becomes necessary for the forensic experts to identify the victims and aid in the return of recovered human remains to the victim’s family. Today various methods are used for Disaster Victim Identification (DVI), which is making this process of identification rapid.</p> Tanha Khan, Chandni Gupta, Arpan Manna, Vasundhara, M. K. Sunil, Pallavi Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Wed, 10 Mar 2021 02:23:41 -0500 Saliva: Its Role in Covid-19 Diagnosis and Preventive Measures <p>The oral cavity is a moist fluid environment due to the presence of saliva. Saliva has a vast variety of roles in the oral cavity, it also contains a variety of biomarkers, micro-organisms, and enzymes which can be used as diagnostic tools for the detection of diseases in the body. Most of the dental procedures are directly or indirectly related to saliva and aerosol generation. There have been many researches which proves that saliva has a vast role in the virulence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, the aim of this review was to evaluate the role of saliva as a diagnostic tool and the measures for the prevention of transmission of SARS-CoV-2.</p> Khatija Memon, Vivek Hegde, Hussain Mookhtiar, Mohsin Shaikh, Rahul Koppaka Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Sun, 14 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge & Attitude Towards Management of Gingival Recession Among Dental Professionals – A Questionnaire Survey <p><strong>Background:</strong> Receding gums, the conundrum among practitioners due to its numerous etiologies and various treatment modalities is found to be an alarming framework in the field of Periodontics. The decision to treat gingival recession is purely influenced by the judgment of the treating, referring dentists, and periodontists.</p> <p><strong>Aims &amp; Objectives:</strong> Currently, there is limited data regarding the approach of an Indian dentist towards the treatment of the gingival recession and their referral to periodontists. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge on diagnosis, treatment strategies, opinions, and interests among the dental professionals with regard to gingival recession.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> An online survey was conducted among 117 dental professionals including interns and postgraduates of various specialties with an age group of 18-30years. This self-prepared questionnaire-based survey was carried out at Mangalore, Karnataka for a period of 2 months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study shows 33.3% of the participants (periodontists) were well aware of Cairo’s classification of gingival recession and 66.7% did not have any idea.32.5% mentioned malpositioning of teeth to be the primary cause for gingival recession. Regarding the general indication for root coverage procedures, periodontists (58.8%) and non-periodontists (41.1%) answered prevention of further progression of the gingival disease (43.6%) to be the most common reason.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Through our observations made in the present study, we would like to conclude that due to the lack of awareness, knowledge, and professional incompetency, many dentists neglect these perioplastic procedures in their routine practice.</p> Nivethitha K, Avaneendra Talwar, Amitha Ramesh, Biju Thomas Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Wed, 24 Feb 2021 22:26:52 -0500 An Analytical Study on Awareness of Neuromuscular Dentistry as Emerging Practicing Field with Respect to Dentists in a City of Maharashtra <p>Neuromuscular Dentistry (NMD) is the latest approach in the diagnosis and treatment of Temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of this study was to analyze and compare knowledge and awareness among General Dental Practitioners, College Faculty, and Postgraduate Students regarding Neuromuscular Dentistry in the city of Nashik, Maharashtra. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 150 dental practitioners who were given a self-administered questionnaire which comprised of 20 questions regarding TMD and therapeutic and diagnostic tools used in Neuromuscular Dentistry in relation with TMD. The faculty members (64.75%) had more awareness among the three groups. Among all the three groups, General Practitioners were having the least awareness of Neuromuscular Dentistry (NMD). Thus, more awareness needs to be spread through CDE programmes, workshops, etc which will help in the early diagnosis and treatment of TMD.</p> Gayatri Mehrotra, Bhushan S. Ahire, Ajay Bhoosreddy, Chetan Bhadage, Komal Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Sat, 06 Mar 2021 09:58:57 -0500 Full Mouth Rehabilitation of the Patient with Severely Worn Dentition- A Case Report <p>The severe wear of anterior teeth facilitates the loss of anterior guidance, which in turn protects posterior teeth from wearing. The loss of the normal occlusal plane and the reduction of vertical dimension occur due to the collapse of posterior teeth. Full mouth rehabilitation allows us to restore severely attritted teeth due to decreased vertical dimension.</p> Swaroopkumar M. Magar Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0400 An Unusual Case of Early Stage Tonsillolith- A Case Report <p>Tonsilloliths are the calcifications within a tonsillar crypt. They primarily involve the palatine tonsils which are caused by dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation. They can be single and unilateral, but occasionally can be multiple or bilateral. Patients with tonsilloliths can occasionally be asymptomatic. This article represents a case of unilateral and asymptomatic tonsillolith which was found during a routine clinical examination. This report describes a case of a 25-year-old female with a history of slight dysphagia with a foreign body sensation.</p> Yukti Dobhal, Sunny Sharma, Ranjeeta Mehta, Ramandeep Singh, Aditi Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Tue, 23 Mar 2021 08:20:53 -0400 Survival of Re-Implanted Avulsed Tooth after Extended Extra-Oral Dry Time with 36 Months Follow Up: A Case Report <p>An avulsion is a serious injury to the tooth as well as to the periodontium. The present case report represents an avulsed permanent tooth with an extended extra-oral dry time period of 90 minutes. Re-implantation should be the emergency management for an avulsed tooth. Its prognosis will depend upon the time elapsed and the treatment plan to manage the avulsed tooth. In the present case, emphasis is given on the proper protocol in the emergency management of an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor with a follow-up of 3 years.</p> Nikita Agarwal, Shikha Mali, Sameer Pushpad, Saurabh Kale, Anoop Kumar, Ankit Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0400