International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science <p><strong>International Journal of Drug Research And Dental Science&nbsp;</strong>is an official peer-reviewed journal published Quarterly, with a total of 4 issues a year. The journal aims to publish high-quality articles in the field of Drug Research and Dental science. Original articles, review articles, short communications, and letters to the editor in Drug and Dental are accepted. All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the International Journal of Drug Research and Dental science (IJDRD). All papers are subjected to double-blinded peer-review.&nbsp;</p> en-US International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2582-0826 Cementum Thickness as a Parameter for Age Estimation <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the present study was to verify the reliability of the method using a single parameter of cementum thickness in a decalcified section of the tooth stained by a cresyl violet stain.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In the present study, 140 extracted teeth from individuals with known age were studied. The decalcified section was stained by a cresyl violet stain and observed under research microscopy. The average thickness of cementum was measured using a digital scale. The age was estimated using a single parameter based on the correlation of cementum thickness with the chronological age.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Estimating age by measuring cementum thickness is a reliable method. The use of a cresyl violet stain for decalcified sections of the tooth makes cementum and the incremental lines more prominent thus helping to measure cementum thickness more accurately.</p> Sanjay G Thete Deepak M Vikhe Rahul B Patil Saurabh L Sabnis Neha Mahajan Astha Bramhecha Kalyani Misal Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 2 4 1 6 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.A Perception of Dental Aesthetics among Two Different Age-Groups in an Adult Population <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dental aesthetic awareness creates a desire for better facial appearance among individuals.&nbsp; A dentist can address their concerns by understanding their expectation. This cross-sectional study aims to compare and assess the self-perception regarding dental aesthetics between male and female patients belonging to different age groups and economic status.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> A questionnaire consisting of 16 questions was distributed among 200 adult patients belonging to two age groups (18-34 and 35-50 years) visiting the dental clinics. The questionnaire focused on patients' perceptions regarding their dental aesthetics, its effect on the quality of life and treatment needs. Descriptive statistics were tabulated, and for assessing the statistical significance, the chi-square test was applied. Binary logistic regression was applied to relate the dependent variable (age) with the independent variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 200 participants, 58.0% were satisfied with their dental appearance, and 40.5% were happy with their teeth colour. Overall, 55.2% of middle age group participants were more contented with their teeth' appearance than the younger age group. But 64.0% of younger age participants were more satisfied with their teeth colour than those of the middle age group and expressed more satisfaction (p=0.0008) about their dental aesthetics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Participants' satisfaction with dental aesthetics was influenced mainly by their perception regarding the tooth colour, appearance of their teeth, and shape of the tooth.</p> Ishani Saluja Neeta Shetty Ramya Shenoy Shreya Hedge Sreelakshmi Pradeep Shanthana Reddy Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 2 4 7 16 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.B Evaluation of the Efficacy of Laser, Desensitizing Tooth Paste and Mouthwash on Obliteration of Dentinal Tubules: An in Vitro Scanning Electron Microscopic Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of laser, desensitizing toothpaste, and desensitizing mouthwash on dentinal tubular obliteration using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Thirty extracted, sound, single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected. The enamel was removed with tungsten carbide fissure bur and crown dentin discs, with a thickness of 2 mm, which was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Each specimen was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30seconds to expose the dentinal tubules. Specimens were again rinsed with distilled water and ultrasound to remove the residual smear layer for five minutes. Group I – Application of Arginine Calcium Carbonate containing toothpaste, Group II – Application of Potassium sorbate, and Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride containing mouthwash, Group III – Application of 810nm diode laser in noncontact mode. All samples were processed and examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to compare the effectiveness of dentinal tubule obliteration.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean values of percentages of dentinal tubule obliteration in Groups I, II, III were 2.20, 4.60, 1.10 respectively. Diode laser group (Group III) was found to be more effective in causing dentinal tubule obliteration followed by the toothpaste group (Group I) and mouthwash group (Group II). Conclusion: Within the limitations, the laser group was found to be more effective in dentinal tubule obliteration when compared to the desensitizing toothpaste group and the desensitizing mouthwash, which was statistically significant (P&lt;0.001).</p> Anjana Vasudevan. T Anil Melath Subair K Mohammed Feroz T.P Ashitha Mohandas Nanditha Chandran Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-11-18 2020-11-18 2 4 84 93 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.L Green Tea and Oral Health-A Review <p>Green tea is a popular health drink which is routinely consumed by many people. It is derived from the dried leaves of the plant <strong>Camellia sinensis</strong> and is a leading beverage in the Far East for thousands of years. Green tea is usually available in the form of beverage, mouthwash containing extract of green tea, and chewing gum. Green tea is an important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. It has been suggested that green tea promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption, and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. Green tea is renowned for its antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. This traditional beverage is also used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including carcinoma. Recent studies have emphasized that in addition to the microbial activity, the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent. In such cases, green tea is considered to be a natural preventive and curative agent. There is a growing search of evidence for understanding the beneficial role of green tea and its polyphenols in oral health.</p> Vasundhara Manish Goyal M.K. Sunil Dhruv Garg Nayira Johar Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 2 4 17 23 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.C Finding Hidden Gems: Nanoparticles in Oral Health- A Review <p>Advances in nanotechnology are showing the future of oral care. Nanoparticles are mostly used for oral disease preventive drugs, prostheses, dental materials, and for teeth implantation. In dental care, various materials which are used are composed of nono particles. Nanomaterials deliver oral fluid or drugs, preventing and curing and maintain oral health care up to a high extent. Even nanomedicine act as devices that is able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells. This review focuses on the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in the field of dentistry.</p> Suman Sen Geetanjali Singh Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 2 4 24 28 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.D Unbridle Treasure of Nanotechnology in Dentistry- A Review <p>A nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of metre 10<sup>-9</sup>. Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic scale. The first-ever concept was presented in 1959 by famous professor of Physics Dr. Richard P. Fenyman. Invention of the Scanning Tunnelling microscope and the discovery of fullerene (C<sub>60</sub>) lead to the emergence of nanotechnology.</p> <p>Three approaches used in nanotechnology, bottom-up approach, top-down approach, and functional approach, and there are various field of application of nanotechnology for e.g in the field of medicine and drugs, nanodevices, therapeutics, Diagnostics, Surgery, Medical nanorobots, Cancer treatment some other field like nanoelectronics, Texttile, cosmetics, national safety, space, and energy application, etc.</p> <p>Nanotechnology is part of a predicted future in which dentistry may become more advance and brings enormous changes in the field of medicine and dentistry.</p> Nida Shreen Upender Malik M. K Sunil Nayira Johar Aiman Mehfooz Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 2 4 48 54 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.H Impression Materials and Techniques for Maxillofacial Defects: A Comprehensive Review <p>Rehabilitation goals are focused on restorative, pallative, supportive, and preventive aspects of treatment. Various advanced cancer or traumatic incidents may affect the soft and hard tissues of the jaws. The defect may result in oroantral, oronasal oro-orbital communications. And in this article, we have tried to overcome the challenges during the various impression techniques and materials for maxillofacial defects.</p> Natasha Bathla Jenny Lalmalsawmi Sailo Anuja Thakur Vishal Katna Rajeev Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-10-26 2020-10-26 2 4 55 60 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.I Role of Antioxidants in Oral Cancer and Oral Lesions–Literature Review <p>The successful control of oral cancer will depend on its prevention. Main Prevention measures are discontinuing tobacco use and the use of various nutritional agents containing antioxidants. The antioxidants can be endogenous or obtained exogenously as a part of a diet or as dietary supplements. Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation of other molecules, thereby preventing the formation of free radicals.<sup>1</sup></p> Nirupa Thomas Lekshmi Venugopal Tibin K. Baby Lisa Elizabeth Anju Mathew Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-11-03 2020-11-03 2 4 61 72 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.J Oral Pigmented Disorders: A Review <p>Oral pigmentations are common conditions which involve any part of the oral cavity. Color changes in oral mucosa can serve as a marker of local or systemic changes in our body. The pigmentations can be endogenous or exogenous, benign or malignant, physiological or pathological. Their diverse clinical picture and its presence anywhere around the oral cavity make it difficult to differentiate. As dentists are the first to identify any of the oral changes, the knowledge of aetiology, clinical features, and treatment is considered important for prompt diagnosis and treatment. This review discusses various pigmentations of the oral cavity.</p> Anjana Babu Fathima Shajahan Priya Thomas Deepu George Mathew Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 2 4 94 104 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.M Lymphangioma in Tongue- A Case Report with Review <p>Lymphangioma is a benign hamartomatous lesion caused by congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. This benign tumor is detected most commonly at birth or in early childhood but rarely in adults. On clinical examination, most lymphangiomas contain clear lymph fluid, but some may present as transparent vesicles containing red blood cells due to hemorrhage. In addition, lymphangioma may occur in association with hemangioma. This tumor occurs most commonly in the head and neck area but rarely in the oral cavity. The dorsum of the tongue is the most common location in the mouth, followed by the lips, buccal mucosa, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. There are various treatment approaches for lymphangioma, but surgical excision is the preferred method. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with lymphangioma on the anterior dorsal part of the tongue, not associated with any dysfunction in mastication or speech disorders.</p> Sameen RJ Shri Hari TG Bindushree V Sai Sindhu V.K Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2 4 29 34 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.E Aggressive Central Giant Cell Granuloma of Mandible: A Case Report & Review of Literature <p>Central giant cell granuloma [CGCG] is a relatively uncommon pathological condition accounting for less than 7% of all benign lesions of the jaws. CGCG is a locally aggressive reactive bone lesion with variable clinical behaviour that manifests with pain, cortical perforation, and root resorption. A Case of a 32-year-old male is reported occurring in mandible. The present case is discussed as a diagnostic challenge to distinguish Central giant cell granuloma [CGCG] from Giant cell tumour [GCT], as they show similar biologic behaviour, histopathologic features &amp; prognosis.</p> Saurabh L Sabnis Pravin P Walunjkar Sanjay G Thete Deepak M Vikhe Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 2 4 35 41 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.F Mandibular Distal Extension Cast Partial Denture Using Corrective Cast Technique V/S Maxillary Tooth Supported Overdenture: A Case Report <p>Dentures requiring support from teeth, mucosa, and the underlying alveolar ridges are liable to be displaced under occlusal forces that adversely affect the abutments and residual ridge during function and parafunction. In the case of free end saddles like Keneddy’s class I and Keneddy’s class II treatment and maintenance it is a very common challenge for the clinician as mucosa gets displaced under load and distal extension. These dentures only have partial support from teeth as their bases act as extensions and cover ridge distal to the last abutment tooth and the residual ridge provides main support, stability, and retention. So, altered cast technique was employed for mandibular distal extension partially edentulous arches to prevent this by making an impression of mucosa under controlled pressure. Border molding was carried out on base plate made in self-cured resins, Impression was made and during lab procedures, free saddle areas were altered in the master cast. The denture was positioned on the model and the final impression was poured. The resulting model represents a corrected cast with free end saddle areas recorded under functional load. Denture construction then follows the conventional technique.</p> Geetanjali Singh Sunny Sharma Harvinder Singh Gill Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 2 4 42 47 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.G Rare Occurrence of Inverted and Impacted Maxillary Third Molar: A Case Report <p>Third molars are the most commonly impacted teeth in the oral cavity. However, inversion of the impacted third molar is a rare clinical finding. This case report addresses a case of a 40-year-old male patient having an inverted and impacted maxillary third molar. The patient was symptomatic, having mild pain and discomfort in the right maxillary third molar region. Surgical extraction of maxillary third molar was planned and performed under local anesthesia after taking informed consent from the patient.</p> Amber Ali Faraz Asmat Fatima Samar Ali Faraz Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal Of Drug Research And Dental Science 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 2 4 105 109 10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.4.N