The Versatile Nature of Saliva- Forefront in Prophylactic Biomarkers: A Brief Review
Prevention is better than cure for many human diseases which have global impact includes diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases, and in late December of 2019, the COVID-19 triggered a rapid outbreak is also under consideration. For the early detection and diagnosis saliva serves as a potential biomarker to reduce disease severity and to prevent complications, since there is a lack of success in the development of better therapy. Saliva is a biochemical fluid mixture that offers an advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and non-invasive collection method for mass screening of disease and its increased progression. Saliva and its component involved in maintaining mucosal integrity and aids in digestion through salivary enzymes. Saliva has many oral health benefits including buffering, lubrication, and re-mineralization. The salivary diagnostics into clinical practice is gaining reality and is equivalent to serum analysis. The investigative use of saliva is already applied in dental health and now it is used to monitor and analyses in various other systemic disorders and diseases. This article emphasizes the multifunctional role of saliva in contributing as a biomarker and its tremendous role as a sensitive diagnostic tool for oral, systemic, and infectious diseases. Its diagnostic roles are expecting to contribute to future pandemic control as well.